By Ali Farkhan Tsani*

Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala says in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 30:

وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ إِنِّى جَاعِلٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ خَلِيفَةً۬‌ۖ قَالُوٓاْ أَتَجۡعَلُ فِيہَا مَن يُفۡسِدُ فِيہَا وَيَسۡفِكُ ٱلدِّمَآءَ وَنَحۡنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ‌ۖ قَالَ إِنِّىٓ أَعۡلَمُ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

Meaning : “And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a caliphate in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.”

Ibn Kathir and Al-Qurtubi said that this verse is a mandatory argument to uphold caliphate, which to settle and decide conflicts between human beings, help the persecuted, enforcing Islamic law, prevent rampant crime, and other problems that cannot be resolved unless with a caliphate.

Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala also says in another surah (Surah An-Nisa verse 59)

يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيْعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي اْلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ اْلآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

Meaning : “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result”

On this verse, Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala commanded the believers to obey ulil amri. Ulil amri is the leader or caliph of Muslims. Certainly, Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala did not command Muslims to obey intangible person. So it is clear that the upholding caliphate is an obligatory.

The duty to uphold a caliphate also pictured in a hadith of Prophet Muhammad Sallallaahu ‘alaihi Wasallam:

وَلاَ يَحِلُّ لِثَلاَثَةِ نَفَرٍ يَكُونُونَ بِأَرْضِ فَلاَةٍ إِلاَّ أَمَّرُوا عَلَيْهِمْ أَحَدَهُمْ

Meaning : “It is not a lawful for the three people who are on a place, except one of them becomes a leader.” (Hadith Reported by Ahmad).

As-Syaukani said: “This hadith is a mandatory argument among Muslims to uphold caliphate. By a leader, Muslims community will solve a strife, so it will realize affection among others. If there is no leadership, Muslims will act upon his opinion based on his own wishes. In addition, the caliphate will minimize disputes and achieve a unity.

Prophet Muhammad Sallallaahu ‘alaihi Wasallam said:

كَانَتْ بَنُوا إِسْرَائِيْلَ تَسُوْسُهُمُ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ كُلَمَا هَلَكَ نَبِيٌّ خَلَفَهُ نَبِيُّ وَ إِنَّهُ لاَ نَبِيَّ بَعْدِيْ. وَسَيَكُونُوا خُلَفَاءَ فَيَكْثُرُوْنَ قَالُوا فَمَا تَأْمُرُنَا؟ قَالَ: فُوْا بِبَيْعَةِ الْأَوَّلِ فَاالْأَوَّلِ وَاعْطُوْهُمْ حَقَّهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللهَ سَائَلُهُمْ عَمَا اسْتَرْعَاهُمْ

Meaning : “The Son of Israel were led by prophets. The dyed prophets replaced by another prophet. Surely there is no prophet after me, and there will be a very much caliphate. The Companions said, “What do you say to us?” He said, “Take the first bai’at and give them their rights. Verily Allah asked them about what was given to them. ” (Hadith Sahih Bukhari from Abu Hurairah).

So, caliphate is the central leadership of Muslims, as Allah  indicated in other surah:

وَإِذَا جَآءَهُمۡ أَمۡرٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡنِ أَوِ ٱلۡخَوۡفِ أَذَاعُواْ بِهِۦ‌ۖ وَلَوۡ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰٓ أُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنۡہُمۡ لَعَلِمَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَنۢبِطُونَهُ ۥ مِنۡہُمۡ‌ۗ وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهُ ۥ لَٱتَّبَعۡتُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

Meaning : “And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Satan, except for a few.” (Surah n-Nisa, verse 83).

Hopefully we can uphold the Caliphate based on the Prophet’s way to expect the pleasure of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala. Amin Ya Robbal ‘Alamin. (T/P04).

* Editor Mi’raj News Agency (MINA)

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